Table 1 Ecosystem services and functions used in this study

Number Ecosystem Service* Ecosystem functions Examples
1 Gas
regulation
Regulation of
atmospheric chemical composition.
CO2/O2 balance, O3 for
UVB protection, and
SOx levels.
2 Climate
regulation
Regulation of global
temperature,
precipitation, and
other biologically
mediated climatic
processes at global or
local levels.
Greenhouse gas
regulation, DMS
production affecting
cloud formation.
3
Disturbance
regulation
Capacitance, damping
and integrity of
ecosystem response
to environmental
fluctuations.
Storm protection, flood
control, drought
recovery and other
aspects of habitat
response to
environmental variability
mainly controlled by
vegetation structure.
4
Water
regulation
Regulation of
hydrological flows.
Provisioning of water for
agricultural (such as
irrigation) or industrial
(such as milling)
processes or
transportation.
5
Water supply Storage and retention
of water.
Provisioning of water by
watersheds, reservoirs
and aquifers.
6
Erosion
control and
sediment
retention
Retention of soil within
an ecosystem.
Prevention of loss of
soil by wind, runoff, or
other removal
processes, storage of
stilt in lakes and
wetlands.
7
Soil formation Soil formation
processes.
Weathering of rock and
the accumulation of
organic material.
8 Nutrient
cycling
Storage, internal
cycling, processing
and acquisition of
nutrients.
Nitrogen fixation, N, P
and other elemental or
nutrient cycles.
9 Waste
treatment
Recovery of mobile
nutrients and removal
or breakdown of
excess or xenic
nutrients and
compounds.
Waste treatment,
pollution control,
detoxification.
10
Pollination
Movement of floral
gametes.
Provisioning of
pollinators for the
reproduction of plant
populations.
11 Biological
control
Trophic-dynamic
regulations of
populations.
Keystone predator
control of prey species,
reduction of herbivory
by top predators.
12 Refugia
Habitat for resident
and transient
populations.
Nurseries, habitat for
migratory species,
regional habitats for
locally harvested
species, or
overwintering grounds.
13 Food
production
That portion of gross
primary production
extractable as food.
Production of fish,
game, crops, nuts,
fruits by hunting,
gathering, subsistence
farming or fishing.
14 Raw
materials
That portion of gross
primary production
extractable as raw
materials.
The production of
lumber, fuel or fodder.
15 Genetic
resources
Sources of unique
biological materials
and products.
Medicine, products for
materials science,
genes for resistance to
plant pathogens and
crop pests, ornamental
species (pets and
horticultural varieties of
plants).
16 Recreation
Providing opportunities
for recreational
activities.
Eco-tourism, sport
fishing, and other
outdoor recreational
activities.
17 Cultural Providing opportunities
for non-commercial
uses.
Aesthetic, artistic,
educational, spiritual,
and/or scientific values
of ecosystems.


* We include ecosystem 'goods' along with ecosystem services.

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1997
Registered No. 785998 England.

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